Gold – only a piece of metal, yet holds worth, beauty, and power that is unmatched by any other metal in the world. It has been the center of attraction to humans due to its malleability, intrinsic beauty, and virtual indestructibility. For civilizations, it has been beaten, tampered, melted, and transformed into various jewelry, ornaments, and tools, but continues to hold great worth even today.

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With its trade origins dating back to 600BC, gold has been used for a long time, initially, as a currency. It was only recently, in 1933, that the Gold Standard (a monetary system where the value of paper money is backed directly by gold) was abandoned, and entirely replaced by fiat money.

Now gold maintains its regulatory system aloof from the currency and is traded in stocks, bonds, certificates, or physically by investors around the world. These investors can be the central banks of different countries, gold dealers, investment firms, or individual people like us.

The gold bar price fluctuates throughout the day due to the changes in demand and supply and is not affected by the changes in the debt or equity market as gold has a separate regulatory system. If an investor wants to invest in physical gold, the gold bar price in US varies from dealer to dealer and often sold at a premium due to the production and transportation costs associated with the bar.

Owing to the liquid nature of gold, people can buy gold easily for two reasons: hedging risks or increasing wealth. Investors look for best place to buy gold online to make gold purchases, in order to hedge their portfolio risks and to cope in times of economic uncertainties. Others purchase gold to improve their wealth and to provide for themselves a financial cushion in times of emergencies.

To physically own gold, you can buy gold as gold jewelry, gold bullions (bars and coins), gold certificates, digital gold, gold ETFs (Exchange Traded Funds), or as shares in a gold mining company. Some of these instruments are speculative and therefore are a risky investment.

For a risk-free investment in gold, it is recommended that you buy gold bars. You can buy gold bars of 1 gram, 5 grams, 10 grams, half oz, and gold per ounce from 31p1. Being one of the reliable and the most reputable gold dealers, 31p1 offers only the purest 0.9999, 24 carat gold to its customers at an affordable price, making it the best place to buy gold online in USA.

Why Gold?

Out of every other precious metal, holding gold as an asset is a great deal. But Why? Let's try to wrap our head around this phenomenon and explore Why to buy gold? The following are the reasons and characteristics of gold that would motivate you to purchase gold.

Reasons to Buy Gold

  • As an Investment

    Investors are always looking for a quick profit or a return after a long period. Whether you're a speculator or a long-term investor, in both cases, gold is profitable for you. As of 2020, gold prices have increased approximately 45% over the last decade and will not stop doing so due to its limited supply and ever-increasing demand.

    In fact, in times of economic turmoil, its value increases at an unprecedented rate, making it a valuable asset for investors.

  • For financial safety

    People tend to buy gold either to increase their wealth or to don themselves with it. However, one of the reasons is to create a financial backup for the future. In times of emergencies, one can unlock the value of one's gold by getting a loan against it or simply cash it out at a much higher rate than the one you purchased in.

  • As a haven during times of economic uncertainty

    The value of gold is not attached to other assets of an investor's portfolio, such as stocks, bonds, or real estate, etc. and is regulated separately from the conventional monetary system. It usually behaves opposite to other investments when they fall in value due to its intrinsic value and therefore, it is considered a haven during such uncertainties.
    In times of economic crises, like a much recent COVID-19, Gold spot prices have always found an exponential increase in its demand from investors across the world as the weakened dollar and deteriorating world economy ensue in further downfall.

  • Protection against financial risks

    Inflation causes the national currency and other assets backed by it to weaken. For example, the devaluation of the dollar will adversely affect other assets in the portfolio, such as stocks, bonds, certificates, and bank deposits. In such cases, gold acts as a financial cover, shielding the portfolio from further losses caused by other assets.
    Due to its hedging capabilities against financial risks, gold is not only able to diversify an investor's portfolio, but also increase the portfolio's worth overall.

Why is Gold a Good Investment?

Gold protects the wealth of its possessor against precarious price shifts and unprecedented risks of the economy. Its versatile nature and unique characteristics make it the best investment option for every investor. Some of the features are discussed below:

  1. Gold is real money

    As we all know, the intrinsic value of the fiat money is virtually zero, meaning that it holds no worth other than printed paper. Gold's inherent value has maintained its worth over centuries by being a real instrument of trade.


    Gold is not rare, as many would say. It's just that the extraction process of Gold is arduous and time taking, which increases its mining costs, limiting its supply against the increasing demand, which makes it precious and expensive.

  3. Gold is highly Liquid

    The liquidity of gold makes it a readily available asset for anyone. This means that you can sell or buy gold easily, either locally or internationally. This feature becomes prominent in times of crisis.

  4. Gold is versatile

    Apart from investing, gold has its uses in electronics, dentistry, jewelry, and even food. This versatility of gold makes it unique and desirable to everyone.

  5. Gold's demand is increasing

    With its limited supply, gold is in high demand across countries around the world. With the faltering dollar, we see that countries like China, India, Russia, and S. Korea are aggressively hoarding gold to make their economy resilient against any unforeseen economic meltdown. As a result, central banks around the world are net buyers of gold.

is gold a good investment

Why Buy Gold Now?

With the already heightened geopolitical uncertainty, risks of war and terror, a weakening dollar, Brexit, and financial market instability, the current pandemic of COVID-19 has made the situation even worse.

A lot of systematic risks exist in our economic systems, which are yet to be mitigated, as proved by the 2008 financial crises, EU debt crises, and hyperinflation of the 1920s, making us susceptible to economic dangers.

Moreover, the currency shocks prove that fiat money is prone to inflationary pressure and is not a reliable source of trade. Furthermore, the increasing value of the real estate, stocks, bonds, and almost every other asset due to the relaxed monetary policy, is yet to experience a crash as the market becomes increasingly volatile.

buy gold now

These are just a limited set of indicators that tells us that much uncertainty prevails in the market, and predicting future trends is becoming trickier. With the rising tensions, the value of gold will only increase in the future, with its prices reaching new highs. That said, is it a good time to buy gold? Well, keeping the above indicators in perspective and considering the increased demand, it is high time for prudent investors to buy gold now, and capitalize on its heightened price in the future.


Whether you're an experienced investor, who have invested in different financial instruments like stocks, bonds, loans or derivatives over your investing tenure or a newcomer in the field, who's looking for a safe investment to start with, you will consider gold to be the part of your investment portfolio anytime in your professional life simply because of the financial benefits that come with it.

Before you plan to buy gold, either to diversify your investment portfolio to enhance its performance or to save it over the long-run to increase your wealth and to aid you in times of financial emergencies, you must know the basic facts which are associated with it so that you can make an informed decision at the time of purchase.

Know what you own and know why you own it.

- Peter Lynch

Following are some of the facts you should be mindful of before putting your money in gold.

  How is Gold Measured?

The European markets consider pound as a measure of unit weight for any commodity, whereas the international unit for weight measurement is "kilograms". Surprisingly, all precious metals along with gold and silver are measured in "troy ounces". A troy ounce is approximately equal to 31.1 grams; it weighs more significant than the regular avoirdupois ounce, which is equivalent to 28.35 grams. With its origins dating back to the 1400s, a troy ounce was the official standard for measuring precious metals like gold, silver, and platinum in Britain by 1527 AD. The system was later adopted by the US in 1828, and since then, the troy ounce is the standard official measurement for precious metals across the world. The weight of gold bar is around 27 pounds.

how is gold measured
buy gold bars

  Gold Bar Premiums

You will usually find Gold bar prices higher than the market spot prices; this is because it takes time and effort in casting, certifying, and authenticating different gold bar sizes before making it available for investment purposes.

The price difference charged is called the "Gold Premium", and it varies across different denominations of gold weight. Smaller bars such as 1 to 5-gram gold bars will command a higher premium than 5 to 10-gram gold bars and above. Such variation is because it takes about the same cost in minting a 1-gram gold bar or a 400 gram one, making the former costly than the latter.

Some bars are floated as collectibles and therefore are in limited supply, luring the investors in buying them due to their scarcity and driving the premium up as the demand increases.

As an investor, you should be aware of the premium charged on the gold bar so that you can plan your investment accordingly.

  Popular Gold Bar Formats

Gold bars are minted or cast in various sizes and weights to suit every investor's choice. Casted gold bars are thicker and more massive than the minted ones. The dimensions of the gold bar you buy may vary from vendor to vendor due to the two reasons. One being the refinery that manufactures the bar is manufactured and the other being whether it is minted or cast. If you are planning to buy gold grams or ounces, you have the option of small-sized 1 gram bars or much bigger 1 oz gold bars. If you are a consistent investor in gold and are interested in higher denominations, you can opt for 100 oz gold bars equivalent to a 1-kilo bar.

If you're planning to buy gold grams or ounces, you have the option from small-sized 1 gram, to a much bigger 1 oz gold bars. If you're a consistent investor in gold and are interested in higher denominations, you can opt for 100 oz gold bars that are equivalent to a 1-kilo bar.

Smaller gold bars are famous for their liquid status in the market. People use them in times of financial emergencies when they can cash it out easily. If accumulated in large quantities, these gold bars can hedge the financial risk of any investor's portfolio. Whether you are an investor who is relatively new in the gold business or someone who's planning to invest in gold in general, you can buy gold in grams or in ounces from 31p1 to get started with your gold frenzy. Following are popular products offered, and their advantages:

1 gram gold bars

One gram of gold weighs around 0.032 troy oz. These are typically the smallest sized bars an investor can buy. The premium on these bars is relatively higher than larger bars because of its higher cost to ounce ratio. The advantage of purchasing a gram of gold is that it is liquid and can, therefore, sell it easily. You can get a 1 gram gold bar price for only $119.77 from 31p1.

Such bars are popular in giving gifts to your loved ones or as a bonus to your employees. Who knows, a gram of gold can be the reason behind the smile of your loved one?

gold price per gram

gold price 5 gram of gold

5 gram gold bars

Charging relatively less premium than one-gram gold bars, five-gram gold bars weigh approximately 0.16 troy oz. This denomination can help investors hedge inflation risks at affordable prices.

If you are serious about investing in gold, we recommend that you start with five-gram bars to give you a head-start in the gold business and to let you analyze the risks associated with it. At 31p1, we offer you five-gram bars at only $449.13.

10 gram gold bars

Saving you approximately $26 in premium, ten-gram gold bars are twice the size of the five-gram ones. Weighing just under 1/3rd of a troy oz, these bars can allow you to hedge your portfolio's financial risks.

If you are an investor who has invested in a range of financial instruments, we advise buying ten-gram bars to diversify your portfolio. 24 carat, pure, these bars are available for $860.82 at 31p1.

buy gold grams

gold price per half ounce

Half ounce gold bars

A half oz gold bar weighs about 15.55 grams. This bar can help you diversify your portfolio and amplify its performance to a great extent. These bars also prove beneficial when taking gold loans in times of financial crisis.

Moreover, this bar can help in aiding your future - saving plans or retirement plans. 31p1 offers this 24K bar for only $1,338.73.

1 ounce gold bars

1 oz gold bars are the most common ones to be traded amongst investors in many countries. The price of these bars fluctuates with the market spot prices of gold. Weighing 31.1 grams, 1 oz gold bars are a standard measure of a troy ounce.

1 oz gold bars are just the right investment for you if you are a gold savvy investor. You can get these 99.99% pure gold bars at a reasonable price of only $2,514.49 at 31p1.

1 ounce gold bar

Whether you buy a 1 gram gold bar or a one-ounce bar, it is necessary to check for the lender's reputation and credibility in the market. When you buy gold bullion online, smaller sizes discussed above come in tamper-proof Certicards. A Certicard holds three essential components:

  1. Assay Information
  2. Signature of the Chief Assayer
  3. Serial number engraved on the gold bar
  4. QR code (optional)

31p1 Certicards are one of a kind, holding gold in their purest forms from the internationally recognized refinery in Turkey, making it the best place to buy gold online.


Once you have decided to purchase gold as an investment, savings, or just to admire its beauty you now have different options to choose from. You can buy gold stocks, gold ETFs, gold coins, or gold bars, which are the four most popular investment instruments. Since we are interested in the physical commodity, one of the most frequently asked questions is, “What is gold bullion?” Below, we will discuss these in detail.

gold bullions

Gold Bullions

Gold Bullions are precious metals, the value of which is solely derived from its purity content (i.e., the content of the precious metal present). They come in two primary forms: gold bars and gold coins. We will answer two of the most frequently asked questions about gold ingots below: “What are they?” and “Where can I buy them?”

Gold Coins

Gold coins are legal tenders, issued by governments, with their minimum face value defined. The government's treasury may mint them for circulation or, by certain authorized countries, for investment. Currently, 19 countries mint gold bullion coins around the world, including the UK and the USA.

Coins minted by government treasury are usually circulated as currency and therefore hold a face value to be used for financial transactions. The face value may increase over time than the actual value subject to its antiquity, historical importance, rarity, and related factors.

gold coins

On the other hand, bullion coins are only authorized for investment purposes, keeping their face value lower than the actual metal content and, hence, discouraging their circulation and keeping them out of the public domain.

As you can get money from the bank in terms of cash, bonds, cheques, or notes, it is a valid question to ask whether you can buy gold coins from a bank? The answer is: No! You can't buy gold coins from a bank.

US banks don't deal in gold bullion coins or bars as they are out of public circulation and used for investment purposes. Although banks do keep their securities in gold bullion bars, they are out of the public domain. The reason banks do not deal in gold bullion is because of its daily price fluctuation.

Gold coin prices vary depending on the purity of the gold. If you want to buy gold in USA, you are looking for gold bullion sales of ‘American Eagle Gold Bullion Coins’ manufactured by the US mint, which you can get online or from a gold dealer.
Before looking for gold bullion for sale online, we recommend that you opt to buy gold anywhere near you. To do this, you will need to do some research to find the best dealers or banks who are credible and affordable.

buy gold coins

gold bars

Gold Bars

People use gold bars for saving or investment purposes. They come in different sizes and weights. Certified private mints and refineries located around the world offer gold bars to institutions, banks, and other gold dealers. The purity of these bars is 0.9999, which is standard for most products. However, they should be at least 0.999 to be considered as investment grade.

These gold biscuits come in two forms; they are either cast or minted. Casting involves the classic method of pouring molten gold into bar-shaped molds left to solidify, often leading to distorted shapes. Refineries manufacture minted gold bars from thick gold sheets with smooth and even surfaces, giving them a perfect brick-like shape.
Due to its perfect shape and dimensions, people use minted bars for investment purposes. The small sizes of gold bars come in tamper-free packaging to protect gold from scratches or damage. Central banks around the world store gold bars in secure vaults which are the "Good Delivery bars", weighing 400 troy oz, approximately 12.44 kg. These super-sized bars are the de-facto standard for bullion bars within countries and, therefore, the sole determinant of spot gold all around the world.

You can buy gold bars near you from banks or certified dealers. The best place to buy gold bars is online. Buying gold bullion online has numerous advantages over buying it from physical stores. To check out for benefits of buying gold online, refer to the section below "BUYING GOLD BULLION ONLINE".


Gold has been a symbol of pride and safety for every savvy investor. Gold bullion bars are purchased by investors and savers alike to get financial benefits from them. The most common advantage of them is their usage as haven investments to hedge risks of any economic calamity, along with diversifying portfolios. The other benefit is that in times of financial emergencies, you can unlock your precious asset value by taking a loan against it. Gold loans are popular amongst savers to enable them to get instant cash in times of financial needs.

You must be thinking, "Why and How can I buy Gold Online?" After knowing much about gold and its features, the following sections aim to explain the benefits of buying gold online and the process which goes into purchasing it.


The following are three of the most important factors which can convince any buyer to choose online platforms for trading gold.

gold authenticity


Whenever you decide to buy gold or other precious metals, you would want your dealer to be ‘Authentic’ and trustworthy. Buying or saving in gold is a high-involvement decision for new investors and savers, and therefore it becomes difficult to take that step in finding a dealer who is reputed and renowned.

Planning to buy gold from a local lender in your vicinity may be a somewhat tricky decision. You may not want to take the risk before verifying the gold or the dealer, knowing it is a lifetime decision.

At 31pl, we claim to rid you of all your doubts, as we deliver you with gold that is internationally recognized, maintaining a bona fide image in the online gold market. Moreover, with years of experience and through our transparent, fair and legitimate dealings, we have earned a prominent place in the online gold market, despite being relatively new.

gold purity


The second most important thing for a saver or an investor is the purity of the metal, as it defines the worth of the metal. As you may know, the measure for the purity of gold is the Carats or 'K'. The purest form is 24K, and the purity decreases with the decrease in Gold Carats. It is essential to know that gold is alloyed with other precious metals like silver and copper to qualify for making jewelry; however, the investment-grade gold is mostly the purest with 99.999% gold.

31p1 deals in only the purest and certified gold, so you do not need to worry about its genuineness, which will allow you to make your best gold investment online, thus far.

gold safety


If you are a Gold Enthusiast and are planning to buy gold over the years, by investing and reinvesting in it frequently, you will wonder about your gold security. Now let's be realistic here, you do not want to protect your hard-earned gold at your so-called 'secure vault' at home when you know that is not the safest option unless you plan to buy lower denominations of gold such as in grams, which then is acceptable.

For a gold saver, we suggest to open a gold bullion account at a reputed dealer. 31p1 can provide you with a reasonable gold saving plan, where you do not need to worry about the safety of your gold, as that is the job and risk we take on your behalf so that you are content at the end of the day, knowing that your gold is in right hands.

The cheapest way to buy gold is online. With proper planning, market knowledge, and keeping up with the current trends, gold purchase can become a game-changer for any investor.


Buying gold bullion online is a hassle-free and straightforward process. You do not have to go to a physical store or waste time in the process, as the online facility is much quicker and easier to use. Moreover, you can get a price advantage over gold in the form of different discount schemes offered by online dealers when you buy in large quantities. Online sites provide specific deals, packages, and discounts to their visitors. You must choose a deal that is most cost-effective for you.

buy gold online process

Before you go out to find the cheapest place to buy gold online, beware of the phony sites that may trick you into buying gold with unknown credibility and unauthentic dealers. Always go for dealer sites that are accepted internationally to protect you from any fraud.


All the gold provided at 31p1 is the purest 999.9, 24-Carat, making it the best place to buy gold online. The gold comes from Nadir Metal Rafineri, located in Istanbul, where it is stamped and approved by the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA). Only a selected group of refineries get LBMA stamp that meets the stringent Good Delivery List practices as it is a symbol of quality that governments and individuals have come to respect around the globe.

Moreover, at 31p1, we strive to deliver the best buying experience for our customers. Customer satisfaction is core to our business, and we aspire to maintain a lasting emotional connection with our customers by delivering the exceptional experience that goes beyond just buying Gold.

With the easy registration and a hassle-free buying process to a 24-hour customer support service, we strive to make our customers happy at every touchpoint and elevate their buying experience, helping us gain their trust and loyalty over time.

Authenticity, Transparency, and Integrity are what sets us apart from other dealers online, which has led us to earn a revered position in the online gold market. Let us wow you with our services and plans designed to cater to your specific needs.

buy gold from 31p1



Buy Physical Gold

You have lots of options when you plan to invest in gold. You can either invest in gold stocks, certificates, ETFs, and others. Some of these investment options are speculative, and you do not necessarily, physically own the gold, but instead, get the equivalent dollar amount at the time of disbursement.

You can physically own gold when you invest in gold bullions (bars and coins). Physical gold preserves the investor's wealth over time. It has no counter-party risk involved or risks that come with currency-backed assets. It is a popular hedge against your investment portfolio and is extremely liquid, meaning that you can quickly sell it whenever you like.

You can start investing in gold by buying little. You can buy gold bars from 31p1 in grams or ounces depending on your investment, whereby you can secure the future of your family and multiply your wealth over the coming years.


Buy Gold That Can be Liquidated Easily

Gold works as the monetary insurance and as a financial backup in times of crises. In such testing times, people may look towards having instant cash. Selling other assets, like gold stocks or bonds, may not give you the best possible return on your investment as these assets are speculative and do not guarantee a minimum price against their value.

The perks of buying a solid gold bar is that its intrinsic value is always positive, unlike the fiat money. Secondly, you can sell it quickly and get instant cash without any trouble. Buying gold bars can help you during unprecedented times.


Don't Use Credit to Buy Gold Online

A sound investment is made to protect you against any liability, not to create one for you. It is advisable to buy gold biscuits or bars from your savings and not to take credit in doing so. Taking a loan against your investment is extremely risky and unhealthy. Even if you are able to buy gold on credit, you will not have ownership of it unless you pay back your credit accrued interest.

The best way to buy gold is from your personal savings, starting your investment journey with peace of mind. You can secure your wealth by purchasing gold from 31p1 online, starting from smaller denominations of 1 gram to a relatively more significant denomination of an ounce. Accumulating these small bars is beneficial as you can invest in small amounts, saving significantly over time.


Look for Gold Purity

The purity of gold is essential in determining its worth. Lesser the gold is adulterated, higher will be its market worth. The purity of gold is measured in Carats. Higher the Carat, more will be the level of purity, and thus, higher its price.

The purest form of Gold is the 24 Carat, followed by 22 Carat and 18 Carat. A 24-carat bar contains all 24 parts of pure gold with an iota of impurities, whereas an 18 Carat Gold Bar consists of 18 parts of pure gold with the remaining six parts being precious metals like silver or copper.

Make sure that you purchase gold of the purest form when you opt for smaller bars. This way, you can get the best price on your holding, if you plan to sell them in the future, as the gold bullion spot prices increase every year. 31p1 is one of the best places to buy gold online, where you are guaranteed 24 Carat gold bars only to ensure that you get the most out of your gold investment.


Look for LBMA Stamp

Authenticity is crucial in the Gold Business. The genuineness and purity of gold determines its worth and credibility in the market. There are a lot of unscrupulous dealers, in the market, who may sell gold which is not verified or fake. Therefore, it is advised to purchase gold that is certified by the "London Bullion Market Association" (LBMA) certification, to protect yourself from such unethical dealers.

LBMA maintains a high standard through a rigorous check and balance in refining, documenting, and storing gold for circulation in the financial markets. If you buy a gold bar with the LBMA stamp, you can be rest assured that you are buying the most authentic gold for your investment.

31p1 imports Gold from Nadir Refineri, situated in Istanbul – Turkey that is accredited by LBMA, making it one of the most authentic and reputable gold dealers online. 31p1 ensures the best quality standards, for its customers, starting from the gold itself, to its packaging, delivering, and elevated buying experience.


Being an investor is a tricky task as it requires adequate knowledge about financial markets, institutions, and a knack for analyzing market trends. The volatility and uncertainty that prevails within these markets make it difficult for investors to predict the direction of the market and leverage that knowledge in increasing return on their investments (ROI).

Even with commodities like gold and other precious metals, investors must deal with precarious spot prices daily, especially those who are gold speculators or have invested in gold ETFs or futures. You will observe in the commodity market that gold bullion prices today show a lot of volatility as it is subject to the market forces of demand and supply.

Gold bullion spot prices fluctuate daily due to the changes in demand and supply. Volatility in gold spot prices is subject to the dollar uncertainty, political instability, stock market shifts, and the threat of possible recessions like the Great Depression of 1930, 2008 financial crises, and a much recent Coronavirus pandemic in 2019.

You can look at the price charts given below, displaying both historical and real-time buy gold prices in various currencies like the US dollar, Canadian dollar, British pounds, and Euros. You can also find 1 oz gold prices today, gold prices per gram, and the spot change. These charts can help you drive the correct decision when you are buying or selling bullions.

Current Gold Spot Price

$2,328.23 USD

Live Gold Price Update: Jun 19, 2024

Gold Spot Prices Gold Price
Gold Price Per Ounce $2,328.23
Gold Price Per Gram $74.85
Gold Price Per Kilo $74,850.00

gold price history

gold price performance

Answering, "Where to buy gold bars locally?" If you opt for the former option, you are most likely to search for dealers or banks near you. Then you will need to visit at least 2-3 banks to get enough options to choose from and select the one which suits you best. The latter option, however, is convenient and somewhat relaxing as it takes on the whole gold buying process virtually, saving you time, effort, and money.

The gold buying process online is straightforward and easy. You just need to find the right dealer offering gold for sale online, subscribe to an online account, and fill in the specifications along with the method of making payments. You can get your gold delivered to your mentioned address within weeks.

You can buy gold online through 31p1, as it offers genuine gold bars, 99.99% pure gold, 100% certified, and recognized internationally. 31p1's gold buying process is relatively simple and easy as compared to other online dealers. Moreover, it offers affordable prices on the gram and ounce gold bars, which will make your every dollar investment in gold worth it.

Yes, you can buy gold bars near your vicinity from a local gold dealer who is reputable and certified. Mostly, it is hard to find such dealers; therefore, we suggest that you buy gold online.

You can get your gold online without any hassle from 31p1, as it facilitates its customers through a seamless process and customer service, maintaining a personal relationship with each of them.